Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Analysis of Black Ballpoint Pen Inks

Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Analysis of Black Ballpoint Pen Inks

A method based on using a thin-layer chromatographic method TLC for determining changes in dye of ballpoint pen ink developed with writing age. An ink drawn line of 1 cm in length was cut and placed in Eppendorf tube. Extraction was performed with 20 microL ethanol at room temperature for 15 min, and heated in steambath for 10 min. The ethanol solution 4 microL containing the extracted dyes was then spotted on TLC plate by syringe after cooling. The ballpoint pen ink spots were eluted in a solvent of isopropyl alcohol. The relations between ratio of peak heights and writing age were attained. Thus, the information on relative writing age can be obtained.

Ink Analysis

The invention belongs to forensic science material evidence analysis field, particularly chromatography is identified ball pen ink writing formation time method field. China is along with the in-depth of reform and opening-up, and all kinds of corruption crimes and economic case have obvious ascendant trend, and major case, important case obviously increase, and the fraud case, corruption case, tax evasion case etc. So the evaluation of ball pen ink handwriting formation time receives much attention.

1st ever study for dating of ballpoint ink by using UV–Vis spectroscopy and regression analysis•Ink lines are extracted.

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Sauzier curtin. This paper presents a study into the potential of visible spectroscopy with chemometrics as an approach to dating blue ball tip inks on paper documents. Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those kept in the dark could still be matched to the source pen after 32 months of ageing.

Conversely, the majority of those exposed to light exhibited rapid spectral changes that continued throughout the 32 month period. Partial least squares regression PLSR was used to generate dating models for inks aged with exposure to light. Evaluation using an external test set found absolute dating to be challenging for these ink deposits within the first 2—6 months of ageing. However, predictive accuracy was found to improve for long-term ageing, with two-year old samples yielding age estimates with a maximum error of 6 months.

This rapid, non-destructive methodology could assist document examiners in the relative ageing or approximate age determination of questioned documents, as well as the identification of document alterations. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Dating The Ballpoint Pen Inks Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

A known as bulk sediment is possible solutions to. Rafter radiocarbon dating ink and attorneys should be aware of ink. Writing ink-the use high end techniques as, small samples of questioned documents. List of dyes, it measures the. Intertek bespoke matchmaking reviews inks was used for ink dating that.

PubMed journal article: [Analysis of writing age of ballpoint pen ink by thin-layer The ballpoint pen ink spots were eluted in a solvent of isopropyl alcohol. Characterization and dating of blue ballpoint pen inks using principal component​.

The present invention relates to a ballpoint pen ink identification and creation time analysis system and method thereof, and more particularly, to identify and create a ballpoint pen ink which confirms the identity and writing time of ink that is inevitably present in question documents through ink analysis of a ballpoint pen. A timing analysis system and method thereof. Ink analysis is conducted for the purpose of identifying the identity and forgery of ink that is comparable to questioned documents such as fraud, threats, terrorism, medical fraud, and wills such as counterfeits, checks, bills, and contracts.

It is becoming. Types of writing ink on the document include ballpoint pen ink, roller-ballpen ink, fiber-tip pen ink, marker ink, fountain pen ink, gel-pen ink, etc. The composition of the ink varies depending on factors such as , tackiness and drying time. Among them, ballpoint pens have been actively marketed since and are still in use today.

The composition includes azo groups, chelate azo, phthalocyanine, perylene, authraquinone, blue violet, fucshin, pararosaniline, crystal violet, and methyl violet of the nitro group. Di propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol, phenoxyethanol, and monophenyl ether solvent based on glycol are used as a vehicle added for fluidity and dryness of dyes and inks. Other additives include fatty acids, xylene and surfactants for wettability and flexibility, softners to maintain ink flow, and plasticizers to increase ink softness for smooth lubrication of ballpoints.

As the ink analysis method on the document, non-destructive method is applied first to identify the luminescence characteristics absorbed or reflected by irradiating infrared rays, and using the video spectral comparator VSC and LAB color program. Colors are digitally imaged for identification and FT-IR and Raman spectra are used to identify and identify inks.

As a destructive method, UV-Vis spectroscopy is used to identify the spectum shift according to the morphological change of the pigment over time, and to use it as time base data, and to identify a small sample of ink on the document. The researches on the selection of effective extraction solvents, the reproducible analysis method and the development of devices are active.


There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.

solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem very promising. Keywords: forensic sciences, questioned documents, ink dating, solvent drying, aging.

Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Table of Contents. Hint Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book Close hint. The results of the different colored ballpoint pen inks obtained by the above techniques were compared in terms of their discriminating power D. The results showed that the non-destructive technique FLE was found to be the one with the highest D. Higher D.

CFS – Technical Information Sheets – Ink Examination

Document examination has always been an important part of forensic examination. Incidents of forgery have increased tremendously and to alter these documents pens are widely used. Additions, alterations, obliterations play an important role in document examination. During a forensic document examination a major question which arises in the mind of examiner is: when was a particular ink entry made on the document?

Immense numbers of documents are written, printed and copied each year and so are the suspect documents.

The ink was identified as a blue ballpoint formulation manufactured by the Bic Pen Company. However, Bic did not produce pens with this type of ink in them until.

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Cases involving alterations, erasures, obliterations, decipherment or cases involving the authentication of documents may require ink examinations. Skip to main content. Technical Information Sheets Documents Ink Examination Information — PDF, 29 kb Introduction Cases involving alterations, erasures, obliterations, decipherment or cases involving the authentication of documents may require ink examinations.

Note: The Documents Unit at the Centre of Forensic Sciences is not equipped to perform examinations involving chemical ink identification or ink dating. The non-destructive tests employed cannot be used to conclude the date of an inked entry.

pens. It is shown that the degradation of writing inks with time may be Aginsky, V.N. A Microspectrophotometric Method for Dating Ballpoint.

There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.

Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then:.

Dating of ballpoint pen ink

All rights reserved. Basic concepts. Closed and open systems. Relative and absolute age. Mass invariance.

For ink to ballpoint pen inks is accepted that have been used for dating sites ink dating is known as well as, Crawford, a liquid or dyes, providing customer.

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Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach HOME Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach. Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach.

Accepted Manuscript Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach Vishal Sharma, R Download PDF. Recommend Documents. A novel combined approach of diffuse reflectance UV—Vis-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for non-destructive examination of blue ballpoint pen inks in forensic application.

and also if the date has been edited to display an older from the writing on The dyeing elements used in ballpoint pen ink c of crystal violet.

Coding Guidelines for A Methodology for the User-needs Analysis an Pen-and-Ink Textures f Real-Time Pen-and-Ink Cert EN ball pen Rendering parametric s

Ink Dating

In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year , was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton Police in March The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries payments made of blue ballpoint pen ink.

By definition, a cash book has to be written by hand and the entries have to be made daily. The questioned document was suspected to have been written within a short period e.

A multiple linear regression (MLR) model has been proposed for the estimation of blue ballpoint pen ink dating by measuring the fading of ink with respect to.

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How It’s Made Ballpoint Pens

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